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Neurons: Transmission of nerve impulses
Curiosities about the Human Nervous System:
- Humans have about 86 billion neurons (nerve cells) in the brain.
- Neurons are the cells responsible for transmitting nerve impulses.
- Neurons produce neurotransmitters that act on the process of transmitting nerve impulses. The main neurotransmitters are: adrenaline, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate.
- Transmission of nerve impulses, between neurons or from neurons to effector organs (glands, muscles) of the body, occurs through synapses.
According to recent research, humans lose neurons over the years. This data explains the existence of some diseases, related to the nervous system, which are related to the elderly. Among these diseases are Senile Dementia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's among others.
- The main diseases and disorders linked to the nervous system are: multiple sclerosis, stroke, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Polio, Depression, Meningitis, Epilepsy and Huntington's disease.
Caffeine in coffee, chocolates and some types of teas is a stimulant of the autonomic nervous system.
- The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the functioning of body processes for which we have no control such as breathing, heartbeat, body temperature and blood circulation.
- The Peripheral Nervous System is composed of nerves, nerve ganglia and terminal organs.
- There are drugs that act directly on the central nervous system. These are called "psychotropic drugs". They are capable of causing changes in feelings, thoughts and actions to people who use them.
The medical specialty that deals with the nervous system is known as neurology.
Last reviewed: 01/02/2019
By Elaine Barbosa de Souza
Undergraduate student in Biological Sciences, Methodist University of São Paulo.