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Cell Types



Prokaryote (bacteria) and eukaryote (vegetable) cells

Introduction

The cells of living things can be prokaryotes or eukaryotes. What differentiates one type from another is the complexity of cell structure and functioning. Each living being is composed of one or more cells of only one type, that is, or the living being is prokaryote or eukaryote.

The types and main features:

Prokaryotic Cells

“They came into existence billions of years ago, so they are primitive and simpler in structure than eukaryotes.

- These cells, unlike eukaryotes, do not have a separate nucleus. In this way, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) becomes loose in the cytoplasm.

- They present only one organelle in the cytoplasm, which is the ribosome, responsible for protein synthesis.

- Substance exchange with the external environment and protection are carried out by the cell wall.

- It has simple operation.

Examples of prokaryote living things:

- Bacteria

- Cyanobacteria (blue algae)

Eukaryotic Cells

- They have a more complex cellular structure than prokaryotes.

- They have a plasma membrane, responsible for the exchange of substances with the external environment and protection.

- They have several organelles in the cytoplasm, responsible for performing various functions in the cell. The organelles are: Mitochondria, Golgi Complex, Centrioles, Ribosomes, Lysosomes and Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.

- Genetic material (chromosomal material) is within the nucleus (surrounded by a membrane), thus separated from the cytoplasm.

Examples of eukaryote living things:

- Animals

- Vegetables

- Protozoa

- Fungi

- Algae (except blue algae)

Did you know?

- Viruses cannot be classified as eukaryotes or prokaryotes because they do not have cells. This type of classification depends on the presence of cells in the body.