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Microscope: extremely important for biology discoveries
Major advances and discoveries in biology:
- 1665: British scientist Robert Hooke described for the first time in history a cell. To do this, Hooke used a microscope.
- 1674: Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek perfected a microscope of the time, allowing the observation of very small beings such as bacteria. It was an important advance for microbiology.
- 1758: Swedish botanist, zoologist and doctor Carlos Lineu developed the scientific classification of living things, by division by genus and species. It was a big step for taxonomy.
- 1799: German geographer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, after a trip through America, presented a theory that showed the relationship between living beings and the environment. It was a breakthrough for ecology studies.
- 1809: French naturalist Lamarck presented his theory with evolutionary principles. This theory was based on the ideas of use and disuse and acquired characters.
- 1865: British naturalist Charles Darwin presented his Theory of Evolution, stating that the evolution of species occurs through a process of natural selection. It was a breakthrough in the area of evolutionary biology.
- 1865: French scientist Louis Pasteur created the pasteurization process of decontamination of microorganisms, used until today in the industrialization of milk.
- 1866: Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel created the Law of Heredity. His research, which originated this law, was done by crossing peas.
- 1928: Creation of penicillin, a medicine used to fight bacteria, by the British pharmacologist and biologist Alexander Fleming.
- 1953: Scientists James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the chemical structure of DNA. Advance of extreme importance in the field of genetics.
- 1960: proof of the existence and functions of stem cells. The feat was accomplished by scientists Ernest McCulloch and James Till.
- 1973: great advance in the area of Biotechnology. Geneticist Stanley Cohen and biochemist Herbert Boyer produced the first transgenic organism in the laboratory.
- 1996: British embryologist Ian Wilmut created the first clone of a mammalian animal: the Dolly sheep.
- 2003: completion of the genetic sequencing of the Human Genome Project, carried out by two research institutes.