What species of bird is on this coin?

What species of bird is on this coin?

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What species of bird is depicted on this coin?">

It said to be an eagle.

It looks like a Ptolemy V (204-181 BC):

it looks to be a pretty standard motif of that era:


I agree that this is not really a biology question… but what the hey.

A French delicacy being eaten to death

Eating ortolans is pushing the species to extinction.

Illegal and unregulated hunting of a tiny migratory songbird, the ortolan bunting (Emberiza hortulana), a coveted French delicacy, has been confirmed as unsustainable by an extensive pan-European study.

Lead researcher Frédéric Jiguet from the Centre for Ecology and Conservation Sciences in Paris, and 30 co-authors, found that the migratory species is at risk of extinction.

Wild ortolan buntings are hunted in southwest France in a cultural gastronomic tradition dating back to Roman times. After capture, the birds are fattened up in a cage before being drowned in Armagnac. Then they are plucked, cooked, and eaten whole, bones and all – everything but the beak.

Ritualistically, diners eat the bird feet first in one mouthful with napkins over their heads. Some say the napkin captures the steaming aromas to enhance the gastronomic experience others contend it hides the act from the eyes of God.

For decades, to fulfil this tradition, hunters have harvested up to 30,000 ortolans every year during the autumn migration. Ortolan eating has the support of many politicians and prominent chefs.

This is despite the species being listed as protected on the European Commission’s Birds Directive since 1979, banned from French restaurants in 1999, and declared endangered in many European countries – including France itself.

The buntings breed from Spain to Mongolia, and Iran to northern Finland, then migrate to sub-Saharan Africa for winter.

European population updates in 2016 found their numbers had dropped by 88% since 1980. Declining or extinct populations, attributed to habitat loss, agricultural practices, climate change and unregulated hunting, were found mostly across northern countries.

French hunters in the south have continually sought exemption to regulations, arguing that their catches are a small fraction of the bird’s broader population.

To investigate the claim, at the request of France’s minister of ecology, Jiguet and collaborators from Canada and across Europe embarked on a five-year study to ascertain migration patterns.

They used three main methods to track the birds’ movements and supplement current population data: light loggers, stable hydrogen isotopes and population genetics.

Light loggers are small electronic devices that record light intensity. They are attached to the birds to assess daily locations. The isotopes provide an estimation of feather growth, revealing breeding grounds and flight pathways.

To track genetics, 266 migrant birds captured in France were genotyped for comparison with mapped data from breeding populations across Europe.

Combined, these methods enabled the researchers to separate eastern and western ortolan populations.

They found that about a third of the birds migrating through southwest France come from the north, and concluded that French hunting is partly responsible for their dwindling numbers.

Modelling population dynamics through various possible scenarios showed that surviving migration through France would markedly reduce the birds’ extinction risk.

The analysis “confirmed that current northern populations of ortolan buntings are directly threatened with extinction and could not persist without marked increases in survivorship”, the authors write.

“Hence, with this study, French authorities now have rigorous scientific data to make an informed decision to conclusively ban ortolan bunting hunting, actively police poaching, and increase the chances of the ortolan bunting to survive global change.”

The research is published in the journal Science Advances.

Natalie Parletta

Natalie Parletta is a freelance science writer based in Adelaide and an adjunct senior research fellow with the University of South Australia.

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The Cornell Lab Bird Academy

Brought to you by the Cornell Lab, Bird Academy is continuing a century-old tradition of sharing the wonder and joy of birds far beyond our walls.

It all started with Cornell Lab founder Arthur “Doc” Allen, who opened the Lab’s doors to the public on Monday evenings for seminars created to celebrate the science and beauty of birds. We’ve never stopped in our mission to help people of all walks of life understand and connect with birds.

Whether you’re newly curious about what you’re hearing in your backyard, an avid birder with a life list to tend, or a budding ornithologist, Bird Academy’s team of biologists, educators, and designers are here to help you learn. Enjoy!

Bald & Golden Eagle Information

The Bald Eagle is an Endangered Species Act success story.

Forty years ago, our national symbol was in danger of extinction throughout most of its range. Habitat destruction and degradation, illegal shooting, and the contamination of its food source, largely as a consequence of DDT, decimated the eagle population. Habitat protection afforded by the Endangered Species Act, the federal government&rsquos banning of DDT, and conservation actions taken by the American public have helped Bald Eagles make a remarkable recovery.

Bald Eagles were removed from the endangered species list in August 2007 because their populations recovered sufficiently. Bald and Golden eagles are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) and the Bald and Golden Eagle Act ( Eagle Act).

Eagle Biology

Distinguished by a white head and white tail feathers, bald eagles are powerful, brown birds that may weigh 14 pounds and have a wingspan of 8 feet. Male eagles are smaller, weighing as much as 10 pounds and have a wingspan of 6 feet. Sometimes confused with Golden Eagles, Bald Eagles are mostly dark brown until they are four to five years old and acquire their characteristic coloring.

Bald Eagles live near rivers, lakes, and marshes where they can find fish, their staple food. Bald Eagles will also feed on waterfowl, turtles, rabbits, snakes, and other small animals and carrion. Bald Eagles require a good food base, perching areas, and nesting sites. Their habitat includes estuaries, large lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and some seacoasts. In winter, the birds congregate near open water in tall trees for spotting prey and night roosts for sheltering.

Eagles mate for life, choosing the tops of large trees to build nests, which they typically use and enlarge each year. Nests may reach 10 feet across and weigh a half ton. They may also have one or more alternate nests within their breeding territory. In treeless regions, they may also nest in cliffs or on the ground. The birds travel great distances but usually return to breeding grounds within 100 miles of the place where they were raised. Bald Eagles may live 15 to 25 years in the wild, longer in captivity. Breeding Bald Eagles typically lay one to three eggs once a year, and they hatch after about 35 days. The young eagles are flying within three months and are on their own about a month later.

Golden Eagles build nests on cliffs or in the largest trees of forested stands that often afford an unobstructed view of the surrounding habitat. Their nests are usually, sticks and soft material added to existing nests, or new nests that are constructed to create strong, flat or bowl shaped platforms.

Golden Eagles avoid nesting near urban habitat and do not generally nest in densely forested habitat. Individuals will occasionally nest near semi-urban areas where housing density is low and in farmland habitat however Golden Eagles have been noted to be sensitive to some forms of human presence. Golden Eagles lay one to four eggs, with two eggs being most common and four eggs most rare. The laying interval between eggs ranges between three to five days.

Soras are small, chubby, chickenlike birds with long toes. They have a stubby bill unlike other rails in the United States and Canada, which have longer bills. They frequently hold their short tail cocked up.

Relative Size

Larger than a Song Sparrow, smaller than a Virginia Rail.



Soras are mottled gray and brown with white-edged feathers, but the feature that stands out the most is their yellow candy-corn bill. Other notable features include a black mask and throat patch, vertical white lines on the sides, and a white patch under the tail. Females tend to be less brightly colored than males and have less black on the face and throat. Juveniles also lack the black mask.

Soras walk through shallow wetlands pushing their head forward with every step while nervously flicking the tail upward, exposing the white undertail feathers. They tend to forage in dense vegetation, but also venture into open areas from time to time. Their long toes help them walk on top of floating mats of vegetation.

Soras make their homes in freshwater wetlands with emergent vegetation such as cattails, sedges, and rushes. During migration and winter, they also use brackish marshes, flooded fields, and wet pastures.

17-year Cicadas: Bird Buffet or Big Disturbance?

As the emergence of 17-year cicadas, commonly referred to as Brood X, approaches, animal keepers are gearing up to keep an extra close eye on their charges, especially those that eat insects, to make sure they don't over-indulge.

But of course, zoo animals aren't the only ones that eat cicadas. Local songbirds, including chickadees, bluebirds and cardinals, will take advantage of their abundance too, something Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center scientists are eager to study.

"This is an awesome opportunity to see how birds respond to a cicada emergence that occurs once every 17 years," said ecologist Brian Evans. "We're looking at how bird songs might change in response to the volume of the cicada calls and how nest success might change thanks to all of this new food in the environment."

For more than two decades, Smithsonian scientists have partnered with homeowners, students and residents to track nesting birds through the Neighborhood Nestwatch program. Every year, Nestwatch citizen scientists partner with Smithsonian scientists to track and observe birds nesting in backyards, school yards and local parks.

Most of the songbirds that nest in and around Washington, D.C., feed their chicks insects. In a year where billions of extra numbers of extra-big bugs expected, scientists theorize more chicks should survive to adulthood. This theory hasn't been borne out in recent emergences, though that could be linked to a lack of data and analysis techniques. Evans points out this Brood X is the first to emerge with humans almost entirely armed with smartphones to record data. Along with improved computing capacities and better techniques to analyze huge data sets, Evans expects to see a big boom in nest success.

"We are calling on our Nestwatch citizen scientists to be especially attentive with nest monitoring this year," said Evans. "I'm expecting to see a difference between Brood X years and other years."

Cicadas emerge every year along the East Coast. But Brood X comprises three species of 17-year-cicadas — so named because they emerge only once every 17 years. The last Brood X emergence was in 2004. While the annual cicadas peak in late summer, Brood X cicadas peak earlier, in May or early June, as soon as the ground temperature stays above 64 or 65 degrees Fahrenheit. This peak is exactly the time that the majority of birds nest and raise their young.

The increased availability of food, Evans and his team theorize, might result in increased numbers of heartier and healthier chicks surviving to adulthood.

The other change ornithologists and ecologists expect to see in birds during a Brood X year is a change in their singing. Cicadas in general are loud. Brood X cicadas are particularly loud. When they join in chorus, the noise can reach levels of 100 or even 120 decibels — equivalent to a thunderclap, a chainsaw, a car horn honking three feet away, or a jet taking off 1,000 feet away.

Birds communicate using sound. They're famous for it.

"Bird signaling — song — is so important," said Evans. "It's how they communicate their territories and sometimes how they signal to mates. Birds use calls to signal danger they’ll chirp to provide alerts for a black rat snake or a neighborhood cat, lurking to eat nestlings or fledglings."

What happens to those bird sounds when cicadas are screaming in the trees too?

The team will plant more than 20 song recorders throughout the Washington, D.C.-region and will observe singing behavior at 35 to 40 sites. They will study how birds sing and behave before and during the cicada emergence. They're not sure whether birds will be able to modify their song — either switch its pitch or increase its volume — to communicate despite the presence of the cicada chaos or whether they'll give up all together.

One of those song recorders will be placed on the Smithsonian's National Zoo grounds, a place that Evans explains is important to local and migratory birds.

"The Zoo is nestled in Rock Creek Park which is part of an almost contiguous forest that runs well north of the city," Evans said. "It's a really important wildlife corridor, and we get quite impressive birds that come through during migration."

Being able to understand how birds respond to noise like the 17-year-cicadas will help them understand how birds react to noise levels in general, such as in urban areas or airports.

"It’s a lot of people working together, and a very fun, albeit noisy, project," Evans says. "This will be a rich data set on sound, and an awesome resource to help future researchers study bird song, insect noise and human-made noise."

This study is in collaboration with Bernard Lohr, University of Maryland Baltimore County Dana Moseley, James Madison University and Shawn Smith, George Mason University.

The Best Strategy To Use For Animal Classification: Birds Children’s Book By Erica Donner …

In categorizing birds, a lot of systematists have actually historically relied upon structural qualities to infer evolutionary partnerships. bird scientific name. Plumage features include the number of different plume kinds the presence or lack of down on the feather tracts and also on the preen gland and the presence or lack of an aftershaft. Qualities of the costs and fees are also useful, as is the setup of bones in the palate as well as around the nostrils. bird classification.

Advancements in the study of DNA series and digital construction of phylogenetic trees have actually supplied new ways of screening theories of taxonomic connections. It has actually frequently been mentioned that birds are one of the ideal knowns animal teams. This is real in the sense that the majority of the living varieties, as well as subspecies on the planet, have most likely been explained yet as a result of insufficiencies in the fossil document as well as repeated situations of convergent evolution within the team, our understanding of the phylogenetic partnerships in between orders, suborders, and households of birds is inferior to that of animals as well as reptiles – what are birds.

DNA data remain to solve the connections amongst major teams of birds. The penguins (Sphenisciformes), tube-nosed seabirds (Procellariiformes), as well as pelicans (Pelecaniformes), create a triad of relevant lineages (bird classification). Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and also chickenlike birds (Galliformes) are linked and also with each other might be the oldest assemblage of contemporary birds. Some caprimulgiforms (owlet frogmouths) appear plainly associated with swifts (Apodiformes) via a web link in between owlet frogmouths and also treeswifts.

The hoatzin included listed below in the Cuculiformes, is usually provided its own order, Opisthocomiformes. The sandgrouse is detailed independently in order Pteroclidiformes. The turacos, in some cases included in the Cuculiformes, are considered by many authors to call for separation and are detailed below as Musophagiformes. and several related categories of extinct flightless predators are typically placed in a distinctive order, Diatrymiformes, near Gruiformes.

Birth of New Species Witnessed by Scientists

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

On one of the Galapagos islands whose finches shaped the theories of a young Charles Darwin, biologists have witnessed that elusive moment when a single species splits in two.

In many ways, the split followed predictable patterns, requiring a hybrid newcomer whoɽ already taken baby steps down a new evolutionary path. But playing an unexpected part was chance, and the newcomer singing his own special song.

This miniature evolutionary saga is described in a paper published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. It's authored by Peter and Rosemary Grant, a husband-and-wife team who have spent much of the last 36 years studying a group of bird species known collectively as Darwin's finches.

The finches — or, technically, tanagers — have adapted to the conditions of each island in the Galapagos, and they provided Darwin with a clear snapshot of evolutionary divergence when he sailed there on the HMS Beagle. The Grants have pushed that work further, with decades of painstaking observations providing a real-time record of evolution in action. In the PNAS paper, they describe something Darwin could only have dreamed of watching: the birth of a new species.

The species' forefather was a medium ground finch, or Geospiza fortis, who flew from a neighboring island to the Grants' island of Daphne Major, and into their nets, in 1981. He "was unusually large, especially in beak width, sang an unusual song" and had a few gene variants that could be traced to another finch species, they wrote. This exotic stranger soon found a mate, who also happened to have a few hybrid genes. The happy couple had five sons.

In the tradition of finches, for whom songs are passed from father to son and used to serenade potential mates, the sons learned their immigrant father's tunes. But their father's vocalizations were strange: heɽ tried to mimick the natives, but accidentally introduced new notes and inflections, like a person who learns a song in a language he doesn't understand.

These tunes set the sons apart, as did their unusual size. Though they found mates, it may only have taken a couple generations for the new lineage to ignore — or be ignored by — local finches, and breed only with each other. The Grants couldn't tell for certain when this started, but they were certain after four generations, when a drought struck the island, killing all but a single brother and sister. They mated with each other, and their children did the same.

No exact rule exists for deciding when a group of animals constitutes a separate species. That question "is rarely if ever asked," as speciation isn't something that scientists have been fortunate enough to watch at the precise moment of divergence, except in bacteria and other simple creatures. But after at least three generations of reproductive isolation, the Grants felt comfortable in designating the new lineage as an incipient species.

The future of the species is far from certain. It's possible that they'll be out-competed by other finches on the island. Their initial gene pool may contain flaws that will be magnified with time. A chance disaster could wipe them out. The birds might even return to the fold of their parent species, and merge with them through interbreeding.

But whatever happens, their legacy will remain: New species can emerge very quickly — and sometimes all it takes is a song.

Images: 1) An example of Daphne Major's native medium ground finches (left), differs from the new species' original newcomer (right).
2) Top to bottom: A to F show successive generations of the hybrids, which now mate only with each other.

Citation: "The secondary contact phase of allopatric speciation in Darwin’s finches." By Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences*, Vol. 106, No. 46, Nov. 16, 2009.*

Brandon Keim's Twitter stream and reportorial outtakes Wired Science on Twitter. Brandon is currently working on a book about ecosystem and planetary tipping points.

What species of bird is on this coin? - Biology

Piping plovers were common along the Atlantic Coast during much of the 19th century, but nearly disappeared due to excessive hunting for the millinery trade. Following passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918, numbers recovered to a 20th Century peak which occurred during the 1940s. The current population decline is attributed to increased development and recreational use of beaches since the end of World War II. The most recent surveys place the Atlantic population at less than 2000 pairs.

The four eggs hatch in about 25 days, and the downy young are soon able to follow their parents in foraging for the marine worms, crustaceans, and insects that they pluck from the sand. Both the eggs and young are so well camouflaged that they are apt to go undetected unless stepped on. When predators or intruders come close, the young squat motionless on the sand while the parents attempt to attract the attention of the intruders to themselves, often by feigning a broken wing.

Surviving young fledge and are flying in about 30 days. However, stormtides, predators, or intruding humans sometimes disrupt nests before the eggs hatch. When this happens, the plovers often renest in the vicinity and young hatched from these late nesting efforts may not be flying until late August. Plovers often gather in groups on undisturbed beaches prior to their southward migration. By mid-September, both adult and young plovers will have departed for their wintering areas.

  • Commercial, residential, and recreational development have decreased the amount of coastal habitat available for piping plovers to nest and feed.
  • Human disturbance often curtails breeding success. Foot and vehicular traffic may crush nests or young. Excessive disturbance may cause the parents to desert the nest, exposing eggs or chicks to the summer sun and predators. Interruption of feeding may stress juvenile birds during critical periods in their development.
  • Pets, especially dogs, may harass the birds.
  • Developments near beaches provide food that attracts increased numbers of predators such as raccoons, skunks, and foxes. Domestic and feral cats are also very efficient predators of plover eggs and chicks.
  • Stormtides may inundate nests.

What species of bird is on this coin? - Biology

BirdLife International uses the taxonomy published in the two volumes of the HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World and subsequent updates.

BirdLife uses this list as the basis for much of its global, regional and national priority-setting work, including, for example, the assessment of all birds for the IUCN Red List, and the identification of Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs). However, some national BirdLife Partners may use other checklists and taxonomic sources that are particularly relevant in their context.

Download an Excel version of the current list here.

Download a PDF version of the current list here.

The Excel version of the Checklist includes the scientific and common names used, the authority (for the original description of the taxon), the latest global IUCN Red List category (e.g. Extinct, Vulnerable, Least Concern, etc.), taxonomic notes where relevant, and a record ID number unique to the taxonomic entity. Previously recognised taxa are also included and distinguished as &lsquoNot recognised&rsquo. In addition the zipped file contains an Excel file listing taxonomic and status changes in the current version, plus tabs listing those species that have updated range maps and factsheets. There is also a separate Word copy of the taxonomic references and this taxonomic approach document. The pdf version is the static version of the current Checklist.

The HBW/BirdLife International Taxonomic Working Group makes decisions on modifications to the Checklist, making extensive use of systematic criteria by which species rank can be consistently assessed where this is necessary (e.g. for newly described species or proposed splits). These criteria (Tobias et al. 2010) involve weighting morphological and acoustic differences as compared with the nearest believed relative, and are particularly intended to help make decisions involving allopatric taxa (as opposed to those in sympatric, parapatric or hybrid zone situations, where the situation is generally clearer).

Further details on the basis of the Checklist, the application of these criteria and the incorporation of molecular data are given in the Introductions to the two published volumes

Maintaining and updating the BirdLife taxonomic list

BirdLife International is the IUCN Red List authority for birds, so the list of species recognised by BirdLife forms the list of bird species in the IUCN Red List. BirdLife&rsquos taxonomic list is also followed by a number of international conservation agreements, such as the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) and the EU Birds Directive. It is vital, therefore, that it is kept up to date and widely communicated to the conservation and scientific worlds.

From 2014, BirdLife joined forces with Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) to produce the HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World, with volumes for non-passerines published in 2014, and for passerines in 2016. Our annually updated list in Excel format became renamed as the Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. This also formed the taxonomic underpinning of HBW Alive. The latest version is available to download using the links above, and earlier versions are available to download using the links below.

HBW Alive has now been integrated into Cornell Lab of Ornithology&rsquos Birds of the World platform. As Cornell uses a slightly different taxonomy to that used by BirdLife, the list of species displayed in Birds of the World does not exactly match the BirdLife list. BirdLife and Cornell are working to align their checklists so that one day we hope that the species displayed in Birds of the World will exactly match those on the BirdLife Data Zone and the IUCN Red List, but this is a process that may take some time. BirdLife will continue to update its checklist on an annual basis, reflecting both the discovery of new species and, more frequently, changes to existing species limits based on the latest research. We will continue to use and promote the objective scoring methods that make the BirdLife list unique in the transparency and objectivity of its decision-making, and will continue to provide full justification for the changes adopted. We welcome input to the taxonomic work undertaken, and anyone can propose taxonomic issues or provide new information for consideration by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group by posting a message on the taxonomic change proposals section of the BirdLife Globally Threatened Bird Forum or email: [email protected] Once revisions to the current treatment are adopted, there is a necessary time-lag before revised taxa are assessed against the IUCN Red List Criteria and subsequently published on the BirdLife Data Zone and IUCN Red List websites, and included in new versions of the Checklist, which are typically released at the end of each year.

The taxonomic notes presented in the two volumes of the Illustrated Checklist that explain the reasoning and evidence behind taxonomic decisions, previously available online in HBW Alive and updated in the light of subsequent changes, can be downloaded here. We are also working to make each one available in the relevant species factsheets on the BirdLife Data Zone. The details and results of the acoustic analyses undertaken to support many of these decisions can be downloaded here, and the morphometric measurements taken from hundreds of museum specimens to support many of these decisions can be downloaded here.

The evolution of HBW Alive therefore does not mean there will be any reduction in effort on the part of BirdLife to maintain, update and promote our objective and transparent taxonomic checklist to support conservation and science.

Archive of earlier versions of the Checklist

Prior to the publication of the first volume of the HBW/BirdLife Checklist (for Non-passerines) in 2014 and the second volume (for Passerines) in 2016, BirdLife published an annually updated taxonomic checklist based on the taxonomies followed in a number of regional lists.

Watch the video: Το νόμισμα στον Αρχαίο Ελληνικό Κόσμο (July 2022).


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