The ermine's colour and geographical range

The ermine's colour and geographical range

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Ermines turn white during the winter, with only the tip of the tail remaining black. However, in the southern regions of the ermine's range it clearly doesn't get so white. Encyclopedia of Life says that:

However, in the Netherlands, the animals are often only partially white.

Ermine's range is clearly much more southern than the Netherlands:

Wikimedia, stoat range

So I was wondering where does the border go, north of which the ermines are completely white and south of which they remain more brown? I understand it necessarily is not a clear cut line, mountains have impact and subspecies may differ, but I would assume someone must have mapped this. Or is it just weather related, will a southern ermine turn white if the winter is really cold?

I'm just asking this out of curiosity, but the question is rather relevant. Ermine pelt has a long history as an important trade item, and the most valued pelts must have originated on the white side of this line.

The color change of Mustela erminea (more commonly known as ermine/stoat/short-tailed weasel) is both temperature-dependent and photoperiodic (depending on the length of the day). Bissonette 1943 and King and Moody 2012 show that the molting of the ermine happens as a result of the change in daylight lengths. The King and Moody paper addresses the temperature dependence, using stoats (ermines) in New Zealand as an example:

In temperate countries such as New Zealand, stoats frequently fail to complete the full change to white. Such animals are not necessarily all caught in the process of moulting. If ambient temperature fell below the threshold for whitening of the lower part of the body but not the rest, new hair would grow white on the tail and flanks and brown on the head and back.

This is a chemical effect of lower temperature (King and Moody):

Experimental work has established that production of brown hair depends on melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH); in cold climates in autumn the synthesis of MSH by the pituitary is inhibited.

They don't provide a specific temperature at which the white color change does or doesn't occur, but I suspect that in nature it'd be very difficult to create a map since temperature is not constant year-to-year. There would most likely be an intermediate zone of partially white animals (both in terms of a mixture of brown and white animals, and a single animal that is not fully white).

What is a geographic information system (GIS)?

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that analyzes and displays geographically referenced information. It uses data that is attached to a unique location.

Most of the information we have about our world contains a location reference: Where are USGS streamgages located? Where was a rock sample collected? Exactly where are all of a city's fire hydrants?

If, for example, a rare plant is observed in three different places, GIS analysis might show that the plants are all on north-facing slopes that are above an elevation of 1,000 feet and that get more than ten inches of rain per year. GIS maps can then display all locations in the area that have similar conditions, so researchers know where to look for more of the rare plants.

By knowing the geographic location of farms using a specific fertilizer, GIS analysis of farm locations, stream locations, elevations, and rainfall will show which streams are likely to carry that fertilizer downstream.

These are just a few examples of the many uses of GIS in earth sciences, biology, resource management, and many other fields.


Refugial isolation during glaciation is an established driver of speciation however, the opposing role of interglacial population expansion, secondary contact, and gene flow on the diversification process remains less understood. The consequences of glacial cycling on diversity are complex and especially so for archipelago species, which experience dramatic fluctuations in connectivity in response to both lower sea levels during glacial events and increased fragmentation during glacial recession. We test whether extended refugial isolation has led to the divergence of genetically and morphologically distinct species within Holarctic ermine (Mustela erminea), a small cosmopolitan carnivore species that harbours 34 extant subspecies, 14 of which are insular endemics.



We use genetic sequences (complete mitochondrial genomes, four nuclear genes) from >100 ermine (stoats) and geometric morphometric data for >200 individuals (27 of the 34 extant subspecies) from across their Holarctic range to provide an integrative perspective on diversification and endemism across this complex landscape. Multiple species delimitation methods (iBPP, bPTP) assessed congruence between morphometric and genetic data.


Our results support the recognition of at least three species within the M. erminea complex, coincident with three of four genetic clades, tied to diversification in separate glacial refugia. We found substantial geographic variation within each species, with geometric morphometric results largely consistent with historical infraspecific taxonomy.

Main conclusions

Phylogeographic structure mirrors patterns of diversification in other Holarctic species, with a major Nearctic-Palearctic split, but with greater intraspecific morphological diversity. Recognition of insular endemic species M. haidarum is consistent with a deep history of refugial persistence and highlights the urgency of mindful management of island populations along North America's North Pacific Coast. Significant environmental modification (e.g. industrial-scale logging, mining) has been proposed for a number of these islands, which may elevate the risk of extinction of insular palaeoendemics.

These stealthy cats avoid humans and hunt at night, so they are rarely seen.

There are several species of lynx. Few survive in Europe but those that do, like their Asian relatives, are typically larger than their North American counterpart, the Canada lynx.

All lynx are skilled hunters that make use of great hearing (the tufts on their ears are a hearing aid) and eyesight so strong that a lynx can spot a mouse 250 feet away.

Canada lynx eat mice, squirrels, and birds, but prefer the snowshoe hare. The lynx are so dependent on this prey that their populations fluctuate with a periodic plunge in snowshoe hare numbers that occurs about every ten years. Bigger Eurasian lynx hunt deer and other larger prey in addition to small animals.

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Distribution and abundance

Sponges are present at all water depths, from the tidal zone to the deepest regions (abyss). They occur at all latitudes and are particularly abundant in Antarctic waters. Members of the Calcarea and Demospongiae are found mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelf, and members of the Hexactinellida are characteristic of the deepest muddy bottoms of oceans and seas. In some environments, sponges are the dominating organisms sometimes they cover wide areas, especially on rocky overhangs and in the caves of the littoral, or shore, zone. A restricted number of species are adapted to brackish waters and members of the family Spongillidae (class Demospongiae) populate the fresh waters of rivers and lakes.

The ermine's colour and geographical range - Biology

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Threats to survival

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, the okapi is endangered. While it’s not clear how many remain in the wild, scientists estimate that populations may have been slashed in half over the past two decades. Though the leopard is the okapi’s chief predator in the wild, human hunters pose a greater threat to the okapi’s existence. In 2012, a militia group killed 14 okapis at a conservation center located at the headquarters of the Okapi Conservation Project. Today, poachers continue to kill okapis for their meat and skin, and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of Congo makes enforcement of wildlife protection laws increasingly difficult. Human-induced deforestation also leads to fragmentation and destruction of crucial okapi habitats.


Human echinococcosis (hydatidosis, or hydatid disease) is caused by the larval stages of cestodes (tapeworms) of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) causes cystic echinococcosis and is the form most frequently encountered. Another species, E. multilocularis, causes alveolar echinococcosis, and is becoming increasingly more common. Two exclusively New World species, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus, are associated with &ldquoNeotropical echinococcosis&rdquo E. vogeli causes a polycystic form whereas E. oligarthrus causes the extremely rare unicystic form.

Many genotypes of E. granulosus have been identified that differ in their distribution, host range, and some morphological features these are often grouped into separate species in modern literature. The known zoonotic genotypes within the E. granulosus sensu lato complex include the &ldquoclassical&rdquo E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1&ndashG3 genotypes), E. ortleppi (G5), and the E. canadensis group (usually considered G6, G7, G8, and G10). Research on the epidemiology and diversity of these genotypes is ongoing, and no consensus has been reached on appropriate nomenclature thus far.

Life Cycle

Cystic Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato)

The adult Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) (2&mdash7 mm long) resides in the small intestine of the definitive host. Gravid proglottids release eggs that are passed in the feces, and are immediately infectious. After ingestion by a suitable intermediate host, eggs hatch in the small intestine and release six-hooked oncospheres that penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate through the circulatory system into various organs, especially the liver and lungs. In these organs, the oncosphere develops into a thick-walled hydatid cyst that enlarges gradually, producing protoscolices and daughter cysts that fill the cyst interior. The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting the cyst-containing organs of the infected intermediate host. After ingestion, the protoscolices evaginate, attach to the intestinal mucosa , and develop into adult stages in 32 to 80 days.

Humans are aberrant intermediate hosts, and become infected by ingesting eggs . Oncospheres are released in the intestine , and hydatid cysts develop in a variety of organs . If cysts rupture, the liberated protoscolices may create secondary cysts in other sites within the body (secondary echinococcosis).

Alveolar Echinococcosis (Echinococcus multilocularis)

The adult Echinococcus multilocularis (1.2&mdash4.5 mm long) resides in the small intestine of the definitive host. Gravid proglottids release eggs that are passed in the feces, and are immediately infectious. After ingestion by a suitable intermediate host, eggs hatch in the small intestine and releases a six-hooked oncosphere that penetrates the intestinal wall and migrates through the circulatory system into various organs (primarily the liver for E. multilocularis). The oncosphere develops into a multi-chambered (&ldquomultilocular&rdquo), thin-walled (alveolar) hydatid cyst that proliferates by successive outward budding. Numerous protoscolices develop within these cysts. The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting the cyst-containing organs of the infected intermediate host. After ingestion, the protoscolices evaginate, attach to the intestinal mucosa , and develop into adult stages in 32 to 80 days.

Humans are aberrant intermediate hosts, and become infected by ingesting eggs . Oncospheres are released in the intestine and cysts develop within in the liver . Metastasis or dissemination to other organs (e.g., lungs, brain, heart, bone) may occur if protoscolices are released from cysts, sometimes called &ldquosecondary echinococcosis.&rdquo

Neotropical Echinococcosis (Echinococcus vogeli, E. oligarthrus)

The Neotropical agents follow the same life cycle although with differences in hosts, morphology, and cyst structure. Adults of E. vogeli reach up to 5.6 mm long, and E. oligarthrus up to 2.9 mm. Cysts are generally similar to those found in cystic echinocccosis but are multi-chambered.


Echinococcus granulosus definitive hosts are wild and domestic canids. Natural intermediate hosts depend on genotype. Intermediate hosts for zoonotic species/genotypes are usually ungulates, including sheep and goats (E. granulosus sensu stricto), cattle (&ldquoE. ortleppi&rdquo/G5), camels (&ldquoE. canadensis&rdquo/G6), and cervids (&ldquoE. canadensis&rdquo/G8, G10).

For E. multilocularis, foxes, particularly red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are the primary definitive host species. Other canids including domestic dogs, wolves, and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are also competent definitive hosts. Many rodents can serve as intermediate hosts, but members of the subfamily Arvicolinae (voles, lemmings, and related rodents) are the most typical.

The natural definitive host of E. vogeli is the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), and possibly domestic dogs. Pacas (Cuniculus paca) and agoutis (Dasyprocta spp.) are known intermediate hosts. E. oligarthrus uses wild neotropical felids (e.g. ocelots, puma, jaguarundi) as definitive hosts, and a broader variety of rodents and lagomorphs as intermediate hosts.

Geographic Distribution

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato occurs practically worldwide, and more frequently in rural, grazing areas where dogs ingest organs from infected animals. The geographic distribution of individual E. granulosus genotypes is variable and an area of ongoing research. The lack of accurate case reporting and genotyping currently prevents any precise mapping of the true epidemiologic picture. However, genotypes G1 and G3 (associated with sheep) are the most commonly reported at present and broadly distributed. In North America, Echinococcus granulosus is rarely reported in Canada and Alaska, and a few human cases have also been reported in Arizona and New Mexico in sheep-raising areas. In the United States, most infections are diagnosed in immigrants from counties where cystic echinococcosis is endemic. Some genotypes designated &ldquoE. canadensis&rdquo occur broadly across Eurasia, the Middle East, Africa, North and South America (G6, G7) while some others seem to have a northern holarctic distribution (G8, G10).

E. multilocularis occurs in the northern hemisphere, including central and northern Europe, Central Asia, northern Russia, northern Japan, north-central United States, northwestern Alaska, and northwestern Canada. In North America, Echinococcus multilocularis is found primarily in the north-central region as well as Alaska and Canada. Rare human cases have been reported in Alaska, the province of Manitoba, and Minnesota. Only a single autochthonous case in the United States (Minnesota) has been confirmed.

E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus occur in Central and South America.

Clinical Presentation

Echinococcus granulosus infections often remain asymptomatic for years before the cysts grow large enough to cause symptoms in the affected organs. The rate at which symptoms appear typically depends on the location of the cyst. Hepatic and pulmonary signs/symptoms are the most common clinical manifestations, as these are the most common sites for cysts to develop In addition to the liver and lungs, other organs (spleen, kidneys, heart, bone, and central nervous system, including the brain and eyes) can also be involved, with resulting symptoms. Rupture of the cysts can produce a host reaction manifesting as fever, urticaria, eosinophilia, and potentially anaphylactic shock rupture of the cyst may also lead to cyst dissemination.

Echinococcus multilocularis affects the liver as a slow growing, destructive tumor, often with abdominal pain and biliary obstruction being the only manifestations evident in early infection. This may be misdiagnosed as liver cancer. Rarely, metastatic lesions into the lungs, spleen, and brain occur. Untreated infections have a high fatality rate.

Echinococcus vogeli affects mainly the liver, where it acts as a slow growing tumor secondary cystic development is common. Too few cases of E. oligarthrus have been reported for characterization of its clinical presentation.

Species Range

A species range is an area where a particular species can be found during its lifetime. Species ranges include areas where individuals or communities may migrate or hibernate.

Biology, Ecology, Earth Science, Geography

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A species range is the area where a particular species can be found during its lifetime. Species range includes areas where individuals or communities may migrate or hibernate.

Every living species on the planet has its own unique geographic range. Rattlesnakes, for example, live only in the Western Hemisphere, in North and South America. The U.S. state of Arizona is part of the range of 13 species of rattlers, making it the state with the greatest variety of these reptiles. Only four species of rattlers have a range east of the Mississippi River.

Some species have a wide range, while others live in a very limited area. For example, the range of the leopard (Panthera pardus) encompasses more than 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles) across Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Another type of wild cat, the rare Iriomote cat (Prionailurus iriomotensis), lives only on Japan&rsquos Iriomote Island. Its range is only about 292 square kilometers (113 square miles).

Species with ranges that cover most of the Earth are said to have a cosmopolitan distribution. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have a very cosmopolitan distribution&mdashthey are found in every ocean on the planet. Human beings (Homo sapiens) also have cosmopolitan distribution, inhabiting every continent except Antarctica.

The Antarctic midge (Belgica antarctica), on the other hand, is found only in Antarctica&mdashit is endemic, or native, to that continent. Species with a limited range, like the Antarctic midge or Iriomote cat, have an endemic distribution.

Species with two or more ranges that do not connect with each other have a disjunct distribution. Mountain ranges, deserts, or oceans sometimes separate the ranges of these species. The kudzu plant (Pueraria lobata) has a disjunct distribution in the southern islands of Japan and the southeast Asian mainland, as well as the United States. The Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) has a disjunct distribution in Europe and the island of Ireland.

Factors Contributing to Species Range

Several factors determine species range. Climate is one important factor. For example, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) travel on sea ice, so the limit of their range is determined by the amount of sea ice that forms in the winter. Many species of cacti and other succulent plants are adapted to live in very hot, dry climates. They cannot survive in areas with lots of rainfall or long periods of cold.

Food sources also affect species range. Living things can only survive in regions where they can find food. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) obtains almost all of its nutrients from various species of bamboo, especially dragon&rsquos head bamboo (Fargesia dracocephala). The natural range of the giant panda is limited to the natural range of the dragon&rsquos head bamboo, mostly the Qinling and Minshan mountains in western China.

When a food source disappears or alters its range, species that rely on it must find another food source, extend their range, or risk extinction. The range of the Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is the cold, northern latitudes. It feeds mostly on small rodents such as lemmings. The Arctic fox is uniquely adapted to the Arctic and cannot change its range if lemmings become more difficult to hunt. (Lemmings are not rare or endangered. They only become more difficult to hunt when the Arctic fox must compete for the prey with other animals, such as the red fox.) However, Arctic foxes have other food sources in their range: seals, fish, and even carrion, or dead animals.

Like food, water is a critical component in a species range. Some creatures live in riparian habitats&mdashareas on the banks of rivers or streams. Animals such as river otters depend on the river&rsquos ecosystem for survival. When people dam rivers to make reservoirs or produce electricity, the wildlife downstream often cannot survive. Their range has been cut off. In fact, loss of habitat is the leading threat to endangered species today.

Access to water can also determine a species range for animals that do not have a freshwater habitat. Many species of African elephants migrate more than 60 kilometers (100 miles) to find watering holes and streams in the dry season. The search for fresh water determines the limits of their range.

Landscape features can also determine species range. The mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) got its name because it lives in mountainous areas. Its large range extends throughout western North America: the Rocky Mountains, the Cascade Mountains, and the Chugach Mountains.

Changes in Ranges

Species range can change over time. Many species have different summer and winter ranges. Canada geese (Branta canadensis) spend summers in Canada and the northern United States, but migrate to the southern U.S. and northern Mexico during winter.

Some species also have different ranges for breeding. Many species of Pacific salmon have a freshwater range and a saltwater range. They hatch and spend their early lives in freshwater rivers and streams. On reaching adulthood, they migrate to the ocean. Some salmon stay within a few hundred kilometers of their home stream, while others, like the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), can travel as far as 4,023 kilometers (2,500 miles). When it is time to reproduce, salmon return to their freshwater range. The eggs hatch in the fresh water, and the cycle begins again.

Humans have changed the range of many species by transporting them. These are &ldquointroduced species.&rdquo Introduction can happen accidentally, when a living thing &ldquohitches a ride&rdquo with unsuspecting human travelers. This has been happening for thousands of years. The disjunct distribution of the Eurasian pygmy shrew, for instance, is probably a result of introduction. Scientific research shows that the Irish population of Eurasian pygmy shrews appeared about the same time that Europeans sailed to Ireland and established settlements there.

People continue to accidentally introduce species to new ranges today. The natural range of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is central Asia, in lakes and the Black and Caspian seas. In the 20th century, these animals were accidentally transported beyond Asia when they attached themselves to large cargo ships. They eventually reached the Great Lakes of North America, where they established a new range.

Zebra mussels, like many introduced species, are a major threat to native species of the area. For example, the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), native to Australia and nearby islands, was accidentally transported to Guam through air or ship cargo. Few local animals could defend themselves against this new predator, and the brown tree snake caused the extinction of many native birds and lizards on the island. Because some of the animals it killed were pollinators, many native plant species also declined.

People also introduce species to new ranges on purpose. People transport plants and animals to use for food, decoration, pest control, or pets. One of the most famous examples of an introduced species is the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) in the Florida Everglades. People kept the snakes, whose native range is the jungles of southeast Asia, as pets. The care and feeding of Burmese pythons is intense, and some pet owners who could not support the reptiles simply released the snakes into the wetlands of the Everglades. The pythons thrive in the Everglades, which has a hot, humid climate similar to southeast Asian jungles. Pythons compete with native species like the American alligator for food and resources.

Plants can also be introduced to new ranges, and threaten endemic species. The purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), with its pretty lavender-colored flowers, hardly seems threatening. But this plant has done extensive damage to North American wetlands. People brought the flower from Europe in the 1800s for decoration and medicinal purposes. The plant grows rapidly along river banks and other freshwater wetlands. It produces many seeds, and is pollinated by many insect species. As a result, it can spread quickly, reduce water flow, and crowd out native plants such as cattails.

In some of the wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, in the U.S. state of Maryland, purple loosestrife has displaced more than half of the native plant species. It provides poor food, shelter, and nesting sites for local wildlife. Its dense, snarled root system can clog drainage and irrigation ditches.

Effects of Climate

The Earth&rsquos changing climate affects species range. Ranges can move, shrink, or grow as a result of climate changes. Sometimes, changes in climate can even cause species to go extinct. For instance, many animals that were adapted to Ice Age conditions&mdashsuch as mastodons, mammoths, and saber-toothed cats&mdashno longer exist in today&rsquos warmer climate.

Earth&rsquos climate has changed many times over the course of our planet&rsquos lifespan. These changes happen as a result of natural events and cycles. Today, human activities are contributing to climate change. This global warming has an effect on the ranges of many organisms.

European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster), for instance, are brightly colored birds native to the Mediterranean coast of Europe and northern Africa. In the 20th century, bee-eaters began to be spotted in central Europe. Today, their range includes nesting sites in Germany and the Czech Republic&mdashcountries that once would have been too cold for these warm-weather birds.

In aquatic environments, climate change favors warm-water species. On the Atlantic coast of the U.S., brown shrimp, grouper, and southern flounder are expanding their range from the Carolinas to the Chesapeake Bay. Unfortunately, creatures that have traditionally lived in the bay, including rockfish, sturgeon, and clams, are threatened by warming temperatures and increased competition for resources.

Species that are considered pests or that spread diseases can wreak havoc on local populations when their ranges expand. For example, many species of the spruce budworm are destructive to evergreen trees in western North America. The insect&rsquos traditional range includes the forests of the U.S. state of Washington and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Warming temperatures are allowing this caterpillar to eat its way northward, all the way to the U.S. state of Alaska, for the first time in history. The expanded range of the spruce budworm threatens the American and Canadian timber industries.

Many species of mosquito are expanding their range as the climate grows warmer. Mosquitoes carry a variety of diseases that can be deadly to people: malaria, encephalitis, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. Many communities and health-care organizations are unprepared for the increased number of cases brought by mosquitoes&rsquo expanded range.

From Fish Farms to Invasive Species
People brought the Pacific oyster to Europes North Sea in the 1960s as a commercial shellfish. This oyster requires a very specific, warm-water temperature to reproduce. The cold North Sea was not the right temperature, so people believed the species was safely confined to aquaculture farms. Unfortunately, water temperatures have changed due to global warming. In the 1990s, the Pacific oyster started reproducing successfully in the North Sea, and it has begun displacing some of the native oyster species.

Watch the video: Η Έλλη βλέπει εφιάλτη με την Ερμίνα και το μωρό της Μυρτούς. Ταμάμ Γ Κύκλος (July 2022).


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